Esther Mobley San Francisco Chronicle
WWR Article Summary (tl;dr) One Napa influencer says she received two or three requests a week from brands seeking to partner before the pandemic. Now, she gets 10 to 12 per week. But as Esther Mobley reports, not all of the attention has been pleasant.
The ranks of social media influencers promoting wine are growing — and dividing opinions within the California wine industry. To some, the work of these influencers is crucial to the industry's future. To others, it's an abomination.
Recently, several critics of these "vinfluencers" have been blunt: They're "wannabes" practicing a form of "nauseating self-aggrandizement," according to writer James Lawrence. Many of them are fraudsters and cheats, blogger Jamie Goode asserts. In the Spectator, Lisse Garnett argues it's hard to take their commentary seriously because of their "overly staged sex appeal."
For other industries, like fashion or cosmetics, these sentiments will feel like old news. They're a few years ahead of wine in terms of reckoning with influencers, those denizens of Instagram who can leverage their large followings to get paid by brands for product placements. For at least the past five years, even the slow-to-adapt wine industry has been engaging with them to some extent.
This fresh spate of vitriol is due in part to a pandemic trend: Wineries are finally starting to sell more wine online — and looking to influencers to help them do it. Many wine influencers say they've grown both their followings and pay rates since the pandemic began. One Napa influencer says she received two or three requests a week from brands seeking to partner before the pandemic. Now, she gets 10 to 12 per week.
But as the backlash shows, the change isn't an entirely smooth one for the famously analog wine market, where less than 5% of sales occurred online in 2019, according to marketing firm Somm Digital.
The wave of disparagement has exposed some disturbingly sexist dynamics that have long existed in wine. The contempt for influencers — at least one of whom displayed an image with a "nipple poke," as Garnett puts it — feels particularly ironic coming within an industry where women sommeliers report that customers repeatedly sexualize them. Women have accused leaders in the country's top sommelier organization of misconduct; in Sonoma County, a winery owner has recently been accused of sexually abusing women.
Meanwhile, the wine influencers are not going anywhere. In fact, they say, they're just getting started. Which suggests that the wine industry will denigrate them — or just ignore them — at its own peril. ------ There's good reason that the social media influencer market hasn't been as robust for wine as for fashion or beauty. Few wineries invested in digital sales before the pandemic, relying mostly on sales to restaurants and through tasting rooms.
In the intensely visual medium of Instagram, wine has some major limitations. One glass of wine looks pretty much like every other, and even a distinctive-looking bottle doesn't have the same aesthetic specificity as a plate of colorful, appetizing food. A user who is enticed to click through to a winery's website might be shocked by high shipping prices, which are standard. All this means that when wineries engage in paid partnerships with Instagram influencers, they can't expect that it will directly result in bottle sales.
But some California wineries have been increasing their investment in influencer marketing anyway, largely in response to a lingering problem: Wine has struggled to gain traction with younger drinkers. The pandemic highlighted just how behind the times wineries have been in developing e-commerce businesses. In March 2020, just 3% of an average U.S. winery's sales came from phone or e-commerce orders; by May, that figure shot up to 26% in part due to dramatic losses in restaurant and tasting room sales, according to figures provided by Silicon Valley Bank. Many wineries were racing to adapt.
Frank Family Vineyards in Napa Valley has engaged in influencer marketing for years — "We've built an entire team around it," with a photographer and videographer, says marketing manager Marisa McCann.
Their tactic is to send products, not cash, to influencers. For its most recent campaign, to promote a wine whose proceeds will benefit the James Beard Foundation, Frank Family sent wine and swag to 60 influencers, who ended up generating 20% of the wine's total online sales.
The winery sees influencer marketing as a way to woo that elusive younger consumer. "Millennials are going to be the future of our industry, and we want to start capturing that demographic," says McCann. "Our (influencer) campaigns are definitely geared toward that age group."
A surge in requests from wineries seeking sponsored content meant that Paige Comrie, the Napa influencer whose business inquiries tripled, was able to quit her corporate job with Walmart last summer to devote herself full time to wine influencing.
"The pandemic honestly helped speed things along for me," says Comrie, who has about 26,000 followers (up from 17,800 in January 2020) and a signature photo palette of dark, moody, saturated tones. "More wineries were ready to dive into digital marketing, and my audience improved dramatically during that time."
Wine marketing firm Colangelo & Partners in San Francisco says influencer marketing has become a cornerstone of its business and grew significantly last year. In 2016, only eight of the firm's winery clients did any influencer marketing, and none of the influencers they worked with received any monetary compensation; today, Colangelo & Partners has 31 winery accounts using influencer marketing.
It hasn't always been easy to get wineries on board, especially at first. "We have received pushback," says Vice President Juliana Colangelo, mostly from wineries that don't see a clear return on investment.
But, Colangelo tells the wineries, the benefits go beyond selling bottles. "Think about setting up a photo shoot — how much models cost, wardrobe, photography, editing — that's thousands of dollars," she says. "Then think about an influencer. You're giving them $300 and a bottle of wine."
Though the wine influencer space is still small, it's growing fast enough that it's beginning to resemble a finely tuned science, says Kenya Thomas, who brokers deals between wineries and influencers for Colangelo & Partners. People with fewer followers may have higher engagement — a measurement that accounts for shares, likes, comments and other interactions with a post — and may actually persuade more people to buy a product.
"Kim Kardashian has millions of followers, but if you looked at her engagement rate you wouldn't think she had the influence," says Thomas. Someone like Amber Lucas, on the other hand, who has about 12,000 followers, may provide a more instructive view into the future of influencer marketing in wine.
Lucas became a wine influencer after dabbling in a more established line of influencing: fashion. She lives in Santa Rosa, so using Sonoma County wineries as backdrops for the outfits she was photographing was only natural. Then around 2017, the wineries began to take notice, asking her to write posts about what to wear to wine tastings.
Soon she discovered an avid audience on Instagram for wine-focused content. After a while, she began supplementing her "organic" content — items she posts of her own volition — with paid partnerships, in which Lucas might pose with a bottle (or a Clif Bar, or a carton of plant-based milk), clearly marking it as an #ad.
Lucas says she believes she's cultivated "a very targeted audience." Her followers know what she stands for — that she cares just as much about how a winery treats its workers as what its Pinot Noir tastes like — and appreciate the down-to-earth tone of the wine education she can provide, she says.