By Katy Murphy The Oakland Tribune
WWR Article Summary (tl;dr) Where are the women professors at top Universities? Stanford sociology professor Cecilia Ridgeway, author of the book "Framed by Gender." suggests the barriers are many, including deeply ingrained stereotypes of men and women; the power of male-dominated networks and mentors, and a sense that academic women who also are raising children aren't as serious or productive. We here at WWR believe that identifying the problem is part of the solution. So lets get the discussion going and focus on the empowerment of women in academia!
In its 125 illustrious years, Stanford has spawned legendary tech companies and claims 32 Nobel laureates, but the epicenter of innovation has yet to solve a pressing problem on its own campus: a dramatic lack of women on the faculty.
Women represent just over one-fourth of the professors at Stanford, a disparity that grows even more lopsided at the top: Of its full professors, a rarefied group with incredible power and influence over their respective fields, only 22 percent are women.
It's a problem hidden in plain sight at elite universities across the nation, but Stanford's imbalance is greater than most: Of the schools ranked in the top 10 by U.S. News & World Report, only the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Caltech had lower percentages of women on the faculty.
"There is the false sense that things are getting better," said Shelley Correll, a Stanford sociology professor who directs the Michelle R. Clayman Institute for Research on Gender. "At this rate, we're not getting anywhere fast."
One commonly cited reason for the lag is Stanford's emphasis on engineering and computer science, fields universally dominated by men. Its engineering school faculty is 85 percent male, a proportion nearly identical to Harvard and Columbia, but it is much larger -- three times the size of Harvard's, for example.
Still, even in fields flush with women earning advanced degrees -- business, humanities, education, political science and law -- Stanford is far from achieving gender equality. And despite initiatives to diversify its faculty, women made up just 33 percent of the university's new hires in the past five years, and 35 percent of those hired for jobs outside the engineering school.
And then there is the lack of women at the very top. Stanford has never had a female president, and its appointment this month of neuroscientist Marc Tessier-Lavigne was to some a reminder of the uneven status quo. The majority of Ivy League colleges, including Harvard and Princeton, have had women in the role.
"We're kind of standing out now as a top university without having had a female president," Correll said.
Stanford is hardly alone with its gender problem. At Harvard and Princeton, women make up less than one-third of all faculty. Columbia University in New York City has the highest representation of women among top 10-ranked schools -- about 40 percent, including those in its medical center -- but among its full professors, roughly a quarter are women.
In the nation's four-year public and private colleges in 2013, women made up roughly 43 percent of faculty, but only 28 percent of full professors.
Small waves Stanford says it has devoted $325 million to a pair of initiatives to support women and underrepresented-minority scholars and has instituted family-friendly policies, such as pushing back the tenure deadline for new parents -- and that it is proud of the progress it has made.
About 39 percent of its junior faculty are women, up from 33 percent a decade ago.
"This trend provides clear evidence that at least at Stanford the move toward gender equity in the professoriate has not stalled," said Karen Cook, a Stanford sociology professor and the university's vice provost of faculty development and diversity.
But the advancement of women within the institution is another concern.
A little over two years ago, after sharing frustrations over dinner about what seemed like a lack of women in leadership, a group of Stanford professors -- being Stanford professors -- decided to see if the numbers reflected their experiences.
The group's findings were striking, though they stressed the figures in their 2014 report were merely estimates based on publicly available data: Women leaders oversaw just 14.2 percent of the university's budget, and led schools with 5.5 percent of Stanford's faculty.
Provost John Etchemendy created a task force on women's leadership in response to the findings. Later that year, Stanford named a woman, physics professor Persis Drell, as dean of its School of Engineering.
"Increasing the number of women and faculty of color ... is and has been a top priority for the university," Etchemendy told this newspaper in a statement Thursday.
Drell's appointment and other steps encourage Andrea Goldsmith, who was part of the study group and is one of five women in the university's electrical engineering department. Now, as a member of the provost's task force, she said its recommendations, due out later this year, will include removing leadership barriers, nurturing those with leadership potential, and regular data reports on how the university is progressing.
"When you start reporting statistics, especially when they're really low, they get people's attention," Goldsmith said.
Where are they? Although women graduate students are outnumbered in the physical sciences, mathematics and engineering, there is no shortage of women entering academia overall. Each year since 2002, women have earned a majority of doctorates awarded to U.S. citizens and permanent residents, according to an annual census sponsored by six federal agencies.
"Right now we have all these women with Ph.D.s -- where are they in the university?" asked Stanford sociology professor Cecilia Ridgeway, author of the book "Framed by Gender."
The barriers are many, Ridgeway and others say: deeply ingrained stereotypes of men and women; the power of male-dominated networks and mentors; different expectations for men and women professors; greater confidence among men; a sense that academic women who also are raising children aren't as serious or productive.
"If you look somewhat different from a traditional faculty member, some professors are going to think you're not a serious scholar, that you're just sort of dabbling," said Catherine Hill, vice president for research at the American Association of University Women. "People like to hire or promote people who are like them."
Robin Ely, a professor and senior associate dean for culture and community at the Harvard Business School, says hiring and selection committees tend to operate in a self-perpetuating cycle in which "pools of candidates are composed almost entirely of men."
"It's kind of amazing that there are as many women as there are in these visible leadership roles in these elite, powerful institutions," she said, "because it really is bucking the system for that to happen."
'Business as usual' Recent controversies at Stanford's Graduate School of Business and Hoover Institution, a conservative think tank -- where some complained of a hostile climate for women -- and the university's handling of sexual assault cases are raising questions about a broader gender problem on campus.
Tammy Frisby, a Hoover research fellow, argues they are symptoms of a "problem at the top."
Only four of Hoover's 74 senior fellows are women, she said, and in the three years since the university investigated the think tank's hiring practices and treatment of female employees, not one woman has been hired for the prestigious senior fellowship.
Still, Frisby has struggled to find people on campus with whom to mobilize around the advancement of women, often finding others to be caught up in their own related causes.
"Until we act like we're all up against the same problem, which we are," she said, "we're not going to get the real leadership and cultural changes we need."
Experts on gender inequality speculate the lack of a groundswell of activism is partly Stanford -- people like to work there and don't want to make too many waves -- and partly a broader societal phenomenon: We are so used to the imbalance that we don't even see it.